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 FdmHtmBgn  化学的历史The History of Chemistry  FdmHtmEgn  [复制链接]

发表于 17-7-22 05:25 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
 FdmHtmBgn 

Chemistry did not emerge1 as a science until after the scientific revolution in the seventeenth century and then only rather slowly and laboriously2.

1)emerge:vi.出现,涌现;冒出

2)laboriously:ad.辛苦地

But chemical knowdedge is as old as history, being almost entirely concerned with the practical arts of living.

Cooking is essentially a chemical process; so is the melting1 of metals and the administration  of drugs and  poisons.

1)melting:a.熔化的,温柔的,令人感动的,甜美的

This  basic chemical knowledge, which was applied in most cases as a rule of thumb1, was nevertheless2 dependent3 on previous4 experiment.

1)thumb:n.(大)拇指

2)nevertheless:conj.然而 ad.仍然

3)dependent:a.依靠的;隶属的

4)previous:a.先的;前的 ad.在前

It also served to stimulate1 a fundamental curiosity2 about the processes themselves.

1)stimulate:vt.刺激,激励,激发

2)curiosity:n.好奇;珍品

New information was always being gained as artisans1 improved techniques to gain better results.

1)artisans: (artisan) n.工匠

The development of a scientific approach to chemistry  was, however, hampered1 by several factors2.

1)hampered: (hamper) n.障碍物;食篮;v.妨碍;牵制

2)factors: (factor) n.因素;系数;代理人

The most serious problem was the vast range of material available and the consequent1 difficulty of organizing it into some system.

1)consequent:a.作为结果的;随之发生的;n.后项

In addition, there were social and intellectual1 difficulites, chemistry is nothing if not practical; those who practice it must use their hands, they must have a certain practical flair2.

1)intellectual:n.知识分子 a.智力的

2)flair:n.天赋,本领,才华

Yet in many ancient civilizations, practical tasks were primarily the province of a slave population. The thinker or philosopher1 stood apart from this mundane2 world, where the practical arts appeared to lack any intellectual3 content or interest.

1)philosopher:n.哲学家

2)mundane:a.现世的,世俗的,宇宙的

3)intellectual:n.知识分子 a.智力的

The final problem for early chemical science was the element1 of secrecy2.

1)element:n.元素;要素;成分

2)secrecy:n.保密

Experts in specific trades had developed their own techniques and guarded their knowledge to prevent others from stealing their livelihood1.

1)livelihood:n.生活;生计

Another factor1 that contributed to secrecy2 was the esoteric3 nature of the knowledge of a alchemists4, who were trying to transform base metals into gold or were concerned with the hunt for5 the elixir6 that would bestow7 the blessing of eternal8 life.

1)factor:n.因素;系数;代理人

2)secrecy:n.保密

3)esoteric:a.秘传的;奥秘的

4)alchemists: (alchemist) n.炼金术士

5)hunt for:追猎…搜寻…

6)elixir:n.灵丹

7)bestow:vt.把…赠与

8)eternal:n.永久的;不朽的

In one sense, the second of these was the more serious impediment1 because the records of the chemical processes that early alchemists2 had discovered were often written  down in symbolic3 language intelligible4 to very few or  in symbols that were purposely obscure5.

1)impediment:n.妨碍;口吃

2)alchemists:(alchemist) n.炼金术士

3)symbolic:a.象征

4)intelligible:a.可理解的,易理解的,明了的

5)obscure:a.阴暗的;蒙昧的




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